Samurai – der Dienende. Ab dem 7. Jahrhundert regiert in Japan erstmals ein Tenno, also ein Kaiser. Um die Macht des Tenno zu sichern und auszuweiten. Japan war das Land der tapferen Schwertkrieger. Sie fielen vor eineinhalb Jahrhunderten der erzwungenen Modernisierung zum Opfer. Was sind Samurai? Nachdem im Kaiserreich Japan die Wehrpflicht abgeschafft wurde, verließ sich die Regierung immer stärker auf gut ausgebildete Krieger aus. <
Samurai in Japan: die 12 berühmtesten Krieger | Teil 1Berühmte Samurai: Diese zwölf Samurai - unter ihnen die Drei Reichseiniger - haben viel zur japanischen Geschichte beigtragen. Welche. Samurai – der Dienende. Ab dem 7. Jahrhundert regiert in Japan erstmals ein Tenno, also ein Kaiser. Um die Macht des Tenno zu sichern und auszuweiten. Was sind Samurai? Nachdem im Kaiserreich Japan die Wehrpflicht abgeschafft wurde, verließ sich die Regierung immer stärker auf gut ausgebildete Krieger aus.
Japan Samurai Collections VideoExploring Kyoto, Japan with the 'Last Samurai': Joe Okada! In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy Lg E9 55 in kanji. The strain of defeating Mystic Knights Stream Mongol invasions at the end of the 13th century weakened the Kamakura Shogunate, which fell to a Kastration Video led by Ashikaga Takauji. It was an aggressive formation in which the samurai took advantage of the casualties caused by the shooting The Walking Dead Richard the ashigaru. Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya area once called Owari Province and an exceptional example of a samurai of the Sengoku period. Samurai in Armourhand-coloured albumen silver print by Kusakabe Kimbei, c.
In a letter to Father Ignatius Loyola at Rome , Xavier further noted the education of the upper classes:. The Nobles send their sons to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics.
They are discreet, magnanimous and lovers of virtue and letters, honouring learned men very much. In a letter dated 11 November , Xavier described a multi-tiered educational system in Japan consisting of "universities", "colleges", "academies" and hundreds of monasteries that served as a principal center for learning by the populace:.
But now we must give you an account of our stay at Cagoxima. We put into that port because the wind was adverse to our sailing to Meaco, which is the largest city in Japan, and most famous as the residence of the King and the Princes.
It is said that after four months are passed the favourable season for a voyage to Meaco will return, and then with the good help of God we shall sail thither.
The distance from Cagoxima is three hundred leagues. We hear wonderful stories about the size of Meaco: they say that it consists of more than ninety thousand dwellings.
There is a very famous University there, as well as five chief colleges of students, and more than two hundred monasteries of bonzes, and of others who are like coenobites, called Legioxi, as well as of women of the same kind, who are called Hamacutis.
Besides this of Meaco, there are in Japan five other principal academies, at Coya, at Negu, at Fisso, and at Homia. These are situated round Meaco, with short distances between them, and each is frequented by about three thousand five hundred scholars.
Besides these there is the Academy at Bandou, much the largest and most famous in all Japan, and at a great distance from Meaco.
Bandou is a large territory, ruled by six minor princes, one of whom is more powerful than the others and is obeyed by them, being himself subject to the King of Japan, who is called the Great King of Meaco.
The things that are given out as to the greatness and celebrity of these universities and cities are so wonderful as to make us think of seeing them first with our own eyes and ascertaining the truth, and then when we have discovered and know how things really are, of writing an account of them to you.
They say that there are several lesser academies besides those which we have mentioned. A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji.
Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. A man was addressed by his family name and his title, or by his yobina if he did not have a title.
However, the nanori was a private name that could be used by only a very few, including the emperor. Samurai could choose their own nanori and frequently changed their names to reflect their allegiances.
Samurai's were given the privilege of carrying 2 swords and using 'samurai surnames' to identify themselves from the common people.
Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go-between of the same or higher rank. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity as most had few opportunities to meet women , this was a formality for lower-ranked samurai.
Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower-ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were permitted. In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to set up the couple's new household.
A samurai could take concubines , but their backgrounds were checked by higher-ranked samurai. In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage.
Kidnapping a concubine, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not criminal. If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance.
Even though the woman would not be a legal wife, a situation normally considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants believed that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner.
When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social status improved the standing of the merchant family.
If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social status. A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event.
A wife's failure to produce a son was cause for divorce, but adoption of a male heir was considered an acceptable alternative to divorce. A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage.
A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her.
After a divorce, samurai had to return the betrothal money, which often prevented divorces. Maintaining the household was the main duty of women of the samurai class.
This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.
The wife, or okugatasama meaning: one who remains in the home , was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly.
For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu lit.
There were women who actively engaged in battles alongside male samurai in Japan, although most of these female warriors were not formal samurai. A samurai's daughter's greatest duty was political marriage.
These women married members of enemy clans of their families to form a diplomatic relationship. These alliances were stages for many intrigues, wars and tragedies throughout Japanese history.
A woman could divorce her husband if he did not treat her well and also if he was a traitor to his wife's family. A famous case was that of Oda Tokuhime Daughter of Oda Nobunaga ; irritated by the antics of her mother-in-law, Lady Tsukiyama the wife of Tokugawa Ieyasu , she was able to get Lady Tsukiyama arrested on suspicion of communicating with the Takeda clan then a great enemy of Nobunaga and the Oda clan.
Ieyasu also arrested his own son, Matsudaira Nobuyasu , who was Tokuhime's husband, because Nobuyasu was close to his mother Lady Tsukiyama.
To assuage his ally Nobunaga, Ieyasu had Lady Tsukiyama executed in and that same year ordered his son to commit seppuku to prevent him from seeking revenge for the death of his mother.
Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty. Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children and perhaps servants as well , and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof.
Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class, required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children.
Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline. Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men.
Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household. This does not mean that women in the samurai class were always powerless.
Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions. Throughout history, several women of the samurai class have acquired political power and influence, even though they have not received these privileges de jure.
Nene , wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times, and Yodo-dono , his concubine, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.
Tachibana Ginchiyo was chosen to lead the Tachibana clan after her father's death. Yamauchi Chiyo , wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife.
According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse, on which he rode to many victories.
The fact that Chiyo though she is better known as "Wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo" is held in such high esteem for her economic sense is illuminating in the light of the fact that she never produced an heir and the Yamauchi clan was succeeded by Kazutoyo's younger brother.
The source of power for women may have been that samurai left their finances to their wives. As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole.
Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness.
Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics.
Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period. Kasuga no Tsubone fighting robbers - Adachi Ginko c.
Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi , ca. Japanese woman preparing for jigai female version of seppuku. Yuki no Kata defending Anotsu castle.
One of the most prominent figures among them was Kim Yeocheol, who was granted the Japanese name Wakita Naokata and promoted to Commissioner of Kanazawa city.
The English sailor and adventurer William Adams — was among the first Westerners to receive the dignity of samurai.
He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living".
Letters [ who? He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters [ who? Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn , a Dutch colleague of Adams on their ill-fated voyage to Japan in the ship De Liefde, was also given similar privileges by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Joosten likewise became a hatamoto samurai  and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo.
On a return journey from Batavia , Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground. Di Chiara was also tortured and eventually became an apostate as well.
After the Shimabara Rebellion in , he arrived on the island of Oshima and was immediately arrested in June There are descendants of samurai in foreign countries.
They are descendants of the first Japanese official envoy to Spain which included Hasekura Tsunenaga around — Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival.
As far back as the seventh century Japanese warriors wore a form of lamellar armor , which evolved into the armor worn by the samurai.
These early samurai armors were made from small individual scales known as kozane. The kozane were made from either iron or leather and were bound together into small strips, and the strips were coated with lacquer to protect the kozane from water.
In the 16th century a new type of armor started to become popular after the advent of firearms, new fighting tactics by increasing the scale of battles and the need for additional protection and high productivity.
The kozane dou , which was made of small individual scales, was replaced by itazane , which had larger iron plate or platy leather joined together.
Itazane can also be said to replace a row of individual kozanes with a single steel plate or platy leather.
This new armor, which used itazane , was referred to as tosei-gusoku gusoku , or modern armor. The back piece had multiple uses, such as for a flag bearing.
The helmet kabuto was an important part of the samurai's armor. It was paired with a shikoro and fukigaeshi for protection of the head and neck.
Muromachi period , 15th century, Tokyo National Museum , Important Cultural Property. Toyotomi Hidetsugu 's gusoku armour, Azuchi-Momoyama period , 16thth century, Suntory Museum of Art.
A lightweight portable folding tatami armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta. The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing.
A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour uma yoroi or bagai. During the existence of the samurai, two opposite types of organization reigned.
The first type were recruits-based armies: at the beginning, during the Nara period , samurai armies relied on armies of Chinese-type recruits and towards the end in infantry units composed of ashigaru.
The second type of organization was that of a samurai on horseback who fought individually or in small groups. At the beginning of the contest, a series of bulbous-headed arrows were shot, which buzzed in the air.
The purpose of these shots was to call the kami to witness the displays of courage that were about to unfold. At the beginning of the samurai battles, it was an honor to be the first to enter battle.
This changed in the Sengoku period with the introduction of the arquebus. In the middle of the contest, some samurai decided to get off the horse and seek to cut off the head of a worthy rival.
This act was considered an honor. In addition, through it they gained respect among the military class. Most of the battles were not resolved in the manner so idealist exposed above, but most wars were won through surprise attacks, such as night raids, fires, etc.
The renowned samurai Minamoto no Tametomo said:. According to my experience, there is nothing more advantageous when it comes to crushing the enemy than a night attack [ During the s, the weak emperors of the Heian Era lost control of rural Japan and the country was torn apart by revolt.
The emperor's power was soon restricted to the capital, and across the country, the warrior class moved in to fill the power vacuum.
After years of fighting, the samurai established a military government known as the shogunate. By the early s, the warriors had both military and political power over much of Japan.
The weak imperial line received a fatal blow to its power in when Emperor Toba died without a clear successor. His sons, Sutoku and Go-Shirakawa, fought for control in a civil war known as the Hogen Rebellion of In the end, both would-be emperors lost and the imperial office lost all its remaining power.
During the civil war, the Minamoto and Taira samurai clans rose to prominence. They fought one another during the Heiji Rebellion of After their victory, the Taira established the first samurai-led government and the defeated Minamoto were banished from the capital of Kyoto.
The two clans fought once more in the Genpei War of to , which ended in victory for the Minamoto. Following their victory, Minamoto no Yoritomo established the Kamakura Shogunate , retaining the emperor as a figurehead.
Samurai related attractions can be found across Japan in form of castles, historic residences, museums, historically themed amusement parks and dress up tours.
The following are some of the many ways tourists can learn about and experience samurai culture and lifestyle today: Castles Castles developed over the centuries from small defensive forts built high up on mountains into massive complexes at the heart of cities, where they served as the status symbol, administrative center and residence of the local lord.
The lord's samurai vassals resided in the town surrounding the castle: the higher their rank, the closer they were allowed to reside to the castle.
Over a hundred castles exist in Japan today, including twelve original castles that survived the post-feudal years intact and many modern reconstructions.
Most of the castles contain exhibits or entire museums that display samurai artifacts and lifestyle. See our castle page for more information.
In order to separate the social castes, samurai were forced to reside in designated districts of the castle towns during the Edo Period. Today, a few of these samurai districts remain preserved with their historic atmosphere of narrow lanes, earthen walls, entrance gates and residences, and allow tourists to get a glimpse into the samurai lifestyle.
In other cases, single samurai mansions have been preserved and opened to the public. Below is a list of some of the better of these districts and residences:.
While most history museums in Japan display at least a few samurai swords or armors, there are a few specialized museums that exclusively feature relics of the samurai.
Some of these include the Sword Museum in Tokyo , which displays one of the largest public sword collections in the country; the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya , which exhibits armor, swords, tea utensils, artwork and household items; and the Maeda and Honda Museums in Kanazawa , which display relics of the two most prominent samurai families in the region.
There are a few history based theme parks around Japan that feature recreated towns from the feudal era. The parks typically offer a variety of attractions, live shows, museums, shops and restaurants and are usually staffed by a whole host of "townspeople" in period costumes, making them a fun way to experience the culture and history of samurai.
There are several samurai-related activities and experiences available that allow tourists to experiences the samurai culture.
Among them are dress-up experiences in which participants can put on a samurai armor or ninja costume, and martial art workshops about samurai weapons and fighting techniques.
Ask in our forum. Home Back. Hideyoshi then repaired Sunomata Castle in Mino Province now Gifu Prefecture to support Nobunaga's siege of Inabayama Castle, which Hideyoshi further facilitated by bribing Mino samurai to desert or switch sides.
Nicknamed Kozaru, or "little monkey," due to his facial features and skinny appearance, he soon became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals.
Hideyoshi was made daimyo of part of Omi Province now Shiga Prefecture after he helped take the region from the Azai Clan, and in , Nobunaga sent him to Himeji Castle to face the Mori Clan and conquer western Japan.
After Nobunaga was betrayed and forced to commit suicide by Akechi Mitsuhide in , Hideyoshi obliterated the Akechi forces at the Battle of Yamazaki, then threw his support behind 2-year-old Oda Hidenobu to succeed Nobunaga.
While the Oda's chief general, Shibata Katsuie, opposed this plan, his defeat by Hideyoshi at the Battle of Shizugatake in made the onetime sandal-bearer the de-facto leader of all Oda forces—including, after some inconclusive conflict, Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Before his death, Oda Nobunaga had already conquered the southern half of mainland Japan, and Hideyoshi went on to take the large islands of Shikoku and Kyushu.
Unforgiving of challenges to his power, in Hideyoshi banished the Christian missionaries who had begun to make inroads in Kyushu, and while Nobunaga had welcomed such missionaries to counter the troublesome influence of warrior monks, Hideyoshi would go on to crucify 26 missionaries and Christian converts in In , the fall of the Hojo Clan at the Siege of Odawara finally brought about the end of the Warring States Period Hideyoshi then turned his eye to Ming China, which he hoped to conquer by way of Korea.
However, two muddled Korean campaigns in and ended any such ambitions. Hideyoshi himself did not survive to see the second campaign through, as he died in September with his troops still abroad.
Beyond being a ruthless warlord and cunning negotiator, Hideyoshi was a fan of tea ceremony—though he at one point ordered his tea master to commit suicide—and also enjoyed performing in Noh plays, forcing his daimyo to join him onstage as supporting characters.
He also reformed the class system, forbidding commoners such as himself to take up arms, and set up tight internal migration controls, thus laying the foundation for the social structure over which Tokugawa Ieyasu would ultimately rule.
Though he may be best known for the shogunate that took his name, the first Tokugawa shogun was equal parts warrior and cold-blooded strategist.
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the son of the daimyo of Mikawa Province, now the eastern part of Aichi Prefecture. At the age of 5 he was kidnapped by the Oda Clan and held hostage for political leverage in Nagoya.
At 6, his father was murdered by his vassals, who had been paid off by the Oda. At 9, after the sudden death of the Oda patriarch, Oda Nobunaga agreed to allow Ieyasu to be transferred to Sunpu, where he then lived as a hostage of the Imagawa Clan until he was 13, when he joined the Imagawa in their battles against the Oda.
After Imagawa leader Yoshimoto was killed in a surprise attack by Nobunaga, Ieyasu decided to switch sides and joined the Oda.
His soldiers were part of the force that took Kyoto under Nobunaga in He allied with Takeda Shingen to capture Suruga Province now central Shizuoka Prefecture , then teamed up with Uesugi Kenshin to turn on his onetime ally.
Ieyasu was committed to victory at any cost: when his wife and first son were accused of conspiring to murder Nobunaga, Ieyasu allowed her to be executed while his son was forced to commit suicide, leading Ieyasu to name his third son, Hidetada, as heir, since his second son had already been adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Ieyasu was too late to take revenge on Akechi Mitsuhide for his betrayal of Nobunaga—Hideyoshi beat him to it.
He then opposed Hideyoshi's plan to establish the infant Hidenobu as the new head of the Oda Clan, but stayed out of Hideyoshi's battle with Shibata Katsuie in , and was also not involved in Hideyoshi's conquests of Shikoku and Kyushu.
He did, however, join in the Siege of Odawara, after which he was granted the Hojo Clan's former provinces in the Kanto Plain in exchange for his own existing holdings.
He was not directly involved in Hideyoshi's failed Korean campaigns, though he was given command over reserve troops in Kyushu. When Hideyoshi died in , Ieyasu was one of the Council of Five Elders selected to administer the newly unified country until Hideyoshi's 5-year-old son, Hideyori, came of age.
However, Ieyasu made alliances with daimyo dissatisfied with Toyotomi rule, and in his forces met those of Ishida Mitsunari, behind whom Toyotomi loyalists had rallied, at Sekigahara in what's now Gifu Prefecture.
With more than , troops engaged in the conflict, Ieyasu's victory in the Battle of Sekigahara cemented his control over the nation.
In , at the age of 60, Ieyasu was granted the title of shogun by Emperor Go-Yozei. He built up his capital at Edo now Tokyo in the lands he had won from the Hojo, thus beginning the Edo Period of Japanese history.
When, in and , Hideyoshi's son Hideyori raised forces to oppose him, Ieyasu came out of retirement to personally lead his armies in the Siege of Osaka, a pair of winter and summer engagements that each involved between , and , troops, and ultimately ended with the eradication of the Toyotomi line.
The strain of defeating two Mongol invasions at the end of the 13th century weakened the Kamakura Shogunate, which fell to a rebellion led by Ashikaga Takauji.
The Ashikaga Shogunate, centered in Kyoto, began around For the next two centuries, Japan was in a near-constant state of conflict between its feuding territorial clans.
After the particularly divisive Onin War of , the Ashikaga shoguns ceased to be effective, and feudal Japan lacked a strong central authority; local lords and their samurai stepped in to a greater extent to maintain law and order.
Despite the political unrest, this period—known as the Muromachi after the district of that name in Kyoto—saw considerable economic expansion in Japan.
It was also a golden age for Japanese art, as the samurai culture came under the growing influence of Zen Buddhism.
In addition to such now-famous Japanese art forms as the tea ceremony, rock gardens and flower arranging, theater and painting also flourished during the Muromachi period.
The Sengoku-Jidai, or Period of the Country at War finally ended in with the unification of Japan under Tokugawa Ieyasu. This period ushered in a year-long stretch of peace and prosperity in Japan, and for the first time the samurai took on the responsibility of governing through civil means rather than through military force.
This relatively conservative faith, with its emphasis on loyalty and duty, eclipsed Buddhism during the Tokugawa period as the dominant religion of the samurai.
It was during this period that the principles of bushido emerged as a general code of conduct for Japanese people in general.
Though bushido varied under the influences of Buddhist and Confucian thought, its warrior spirit remained constant, including an emphasis on military skills and fearlessness in the face of an enemy.
In a peaceful Japan, many samurai were forced to become bureaucrats or take up some type of trade, even as they preserved their conception of themselves as fighting men.
In , the right to carry swords was restricted only to samurai, which created an even greater separation between them and the farmer-peasant class.
The material well-being of many samurai actually declined during the Tokugawa Shogunate, however.